A little background information

A little background information to help understand the Procession of the Holy Spirit

The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in the mid-17th to later 18th century that sought to replace faith, superstition and the acceptance of divine rule with rationality, the belief in one’s own intelligence and a more empirical approach to the world. This brief explanation it inevitably misleading as the enlightenment included a diverse range of thinkers and lasted many generations.

Early Enlightenment thinkers such as Descartes and Isaac Newton had strong connections to the church; some later thinkers such as Voltaire and Spinoza were critical of religion; yet all emphasised rationality. The enlightenment overlapped with the Scientific revolution.

Liberal Christianity developed in the later 18th century, influenced by the rational ideals of the preceding Enlightenment. They tended to disregard miracles and factual views of the Bible; they saw the scriptures as a record of what the Biblical authors’ of the time believed rather than an accurate record of what actually occurred. The teachings of Christ were valued as the potential basis for an improved society, with love, charity and social justice strongly emphasised; superstition, belief in miracles was seen as backward and discouraged.

As the word ‘liberal’ is applied to many political movements, political parties, social reforms and religious ideologies it is easy to get confused. Even in the 19th century Liberal Christianity was confused with political liberalism, and the Pope had to clarify the issues as parishioners were being discriminated against because of their political beliefs. Similarly, liberalism should not be confused with progressive Christianity. The names of movements are often misleading.

It is a little strange that liberal movements that purportedly advocate rational thinking could result in greater religious diversity. Of course liberalism fits with diversity, especially as no one authority is accepted as the source of all beliefs. What is strange is that so many different views can all consider themselves rational. The premises for different perspectives are different, even if the structure of the developing logical arguments were the same. Intelligence is no guarantee that different minds will come to the same conclusion. Something other than rationality is at work here. Different individuals and groups come to arrive at different opinions; each makes sense to then mind that follows them. At least with liberalism we are expected to tolerate the different views, and understand that they are also the product of at least some rational thinking.

*Today’s blog post has been supplied to us by The Procession of the Holy Spirit submitted to the UCS University of California for completing the degree of Master of Theology.

Cosmetic Dentistry, Sydney

Why teeth whitening is popular

Teeth tend to discolour as one ages, though this varies between individuals. As such, we unconsciously associate clean, white teeth with a youthful appearance. Perhaps this was different a few generations ago when more people smoked, and a little staining was ubiquitous. These days we expect more, we expect teeth to be healthy and there appearance to be optimal.

Coffee and tea does have some effect on tooth colour, but this tends to be easy to remove, often by the polishing undertaken with the appointment recommended every six months. Smoking is a little more serious, but this can also be polished away. Obviously the effects of smoking and excessive caffeine consumption are not removed by dental work.

Bleaching is one of, if not the most, popular form of tooth whitening. It can be done at home or at the dentist, but home kits are actually custom made by the dentist for the individual in question, so both have a professional involved.

The results last for 12 to 18 months, but this is a little misleading. The teeth never fully revert to the stained colour again. Rather, they are bright white when treated and become a less bright shade of white over time. Those who wish to keep the brightness consistent can simply have a ‘top-up’ session every six months. The supplies in the home kit can last for many years.

It is not really necessary to change one’s diet if you want to undertake whitening. Rather, whitening allows you to keep eating food that might affect your tooth colour while still maintaining healthy looking teeth.


The demarcation between cosmetic and functional dental work is not clear. Implants that replace lost teeth improve appearance even as this is not the primary function. Orthodontics improve teeth alignment considerably to improve bite, chewing and speech; but they inadvertently make the individual look better in the process. There is a tendency for neat, symmetrical items to work well, and this tends to apply to teeth and jaws.

By contrast a dental veneer is for appearance only. Veneers are thing porcelain covering custom made and bonded to teeth. They can fill some gaps, but mostly just change the appearance of teeth. Modification to the underlying tooth is sometimes necessary, but tends to be minimal.

For a cosmetic dentist, Sydney based Dental Focus offer a full range of modern practices.


HSC Tutoring

The HSC is designed to test what you have learnt and your practical ability to effectively explain it in a written form. It is hard to avoid absolutely every pitfall that ties to written test, as one inevitable finds one’s handwriting, ability to handle stress, and other factors are all tested with the actual subject matter at hand. Nonetheless, it is possible to better understand what an examiner what and notable improve exam results. Tutoring is about optimising ability and getting individuals to reach their potential. There are no tricks, just a more accurate approach.

Clear communication is always a factor, probably the most prominent factor, in any essay in any subject. English is basically the only compulsory subject because written language is ubiquitous. Even if the emphasis is on another subject entirely it is impossible to learn it, let alone communicate it, without fundamental English skills. The ability to perform well in an exam is even more dependent on this. Subjects like mathematics and music are only partial exceptions; poor English will hold back students in these subjects too.

The key to good essay writing is under our noses. We prefer something written clearly, that allows us to understand with minimal effort. But we are tricked because we think this is too easy. We don’t always appreciate the effort behind effective and clear prose. It can be difficult for an author to make things easy for the reader. On the rare occasion where we compare an initial bad and confusing explanation to a clear and well-structured account we can appreciate the difference. We can see it was the poor written account that was the problem and not the subject matter itself. Yet we can often miss this.

It is a mistake to think of dense prose as profound, or verbose terminology as far reaching insight. Unless you are trying to hide your meaning and trick the less alert members of your audience (lateral thinking question and puzzles) deliberate obscurity is a mistake. Ask a student is they prefer the dense textbook that took several reading to understand (it must be hard, it took forever to grasp) or the well written, well-structured explanation (oh, so that’s what it meant!) and they start to see the point. HSC examiners are in the same situation, only with several years more experience. The essay that gets to the point, is accurate and is clear and persuasive, gets a solid grade. Answering the question is enough to get a good result. Connecting the facts and making an original insight is even better, without compromising your answer to the set question.

HSC tutoring is not about tricks. It’s about optimising your approach and performing to your potential, understanding the matter at hand, seeing the connections between facts and showing how is all fit together. Improved results are a combination of a genuine increase in understanding and an improved ability to communicate that understanding.

For HSC tutoring Sydney’s Global Language Academy is highly recommended.